How to remove burrs and oxide scales from hardware wrenches tools and achieve a mirror polishing surface?

Hardware wrench tool deburring,descaling and mirror polishing process technology method

Hardware tools are necessities in our daily production. The name of hardware originally refers to tools made of five metals: gold, silver, copper, iron, and tin. However, with the development of technology today, the materials used in hardware tools have long broken through the original five metal limitations and are changing with each passing day. Today we will share a case of deburring and descaling of an open-end wrench tool product made of chrome-vanadium alloy steel after stamping, reducing surface roughness, and mirror polishing. This finishing process solution is also suitable for the deburring, descaling, mirror finishing and polishing of hardware wrench tools made of other materials such as high-carbon steel, stainless steel, and high-manganese alloy steel.

    • jerrylu
    • 2024-06-08


Hardware wrench tool deburring,descaling, mirror finishing and polishing process

1. Chrome vanadium alloy steel hardware wrench tool before polishing
How to deburr, descale, mirror finish and polish the hardware wrenches tools


chrome vanadium alloy steel


surface burrs, oxide scale.




15*70 MM

Pre-polishing process:

standard stamping

Post-polishing process:

chrome plating

2. Finishing and polishing requirements:
  • deburring, descaling
  • surface mirror polishing
3. Chrome vanadium alloy steel hardware wrench tool polishing process details:
Process steps: (1) deburring, descaling for rough finishing (2) reduce roughness for fine finishing (3) mirror polishing
Machine and equipment centrifugal disc finishing machine centrifugal disc finishing machine mirror polishing machine
Speed highest highest highest
Tumbling Media angle cut tri-angle ceramic tumbling media cone resin tumbling media mirror polishing media
Abrasive media to workpiece 4:1 4:1 8:1
Chemical Compound finishing compound polishing compound polishing paste
Water appropriate amount, liquid level does not exceed abrasive media appropriate amount, liquid level does not exceed abrasive media no
Polishing time 120 minutes 60 minutes 180 minutes
Remark parts separated and picked up automatically, rinsed with water parts separated and picked up automatically, rinsed with water high-speed mirror polishing
4. Chrome vanadium alloy steel hardware wrench tool after polishing
Hardware wrench tools deburring,descaling, mirror finishing and polishing effect
deburring,descaling,mirror finishing and polishing effect comparison of hardware wrench tools

5. Additional instructions
  • Chrome vanadium steel is an alloy tool steel with chromium (CR) and vanadium (V) alloy elements. Its comprehensive strength and toughness are better than carbon steel, making it an ideal material for high-quality tools. This product is small in size and requires high finishing efficiency. Therefore, the rough finishing machine uses a centrifugal disc finisher, which has strong finishing force and high cutting efficiency. The medium-cutting force of the angle cut tri-angle ceramic tumbling media is used for rough finishing, which can achieve the effect of rapid deburring and descaling.
  • Fine finishing uses light cutting force plastic media, also called polyester media. This tumbling media has small grit size and light weight, will not cause deformation of the workpiece, and can further reduce the surface roughness.
  • The last step after fine finishing is to use a mirror polisher and mirror polishing abrasive media to enhance the brightness and mirror polishing.

6. Final summary
  • In this case study, we demonstrate the process of automated deburring, descaling, mirror finishing and polishing of the outer surface of a chrome-vanadium alloy steel hardware wrench tool.
  • If you need professional technical support for deburring, descaling, finishing and polishing of hardware wrenches tools made of stainless steel, high carbon steel, chrome-molybdenum steel, S2 tool steel, etc. or the following products, you can refer to the above cases:
    Methods for deburring hardware tools
    How to deburr hardware tools
    Videos for deburring hardware tools
    Videos for hardware tool polishing machines
    Methods for polishing hardware tools
    Hardware tool polishing machines
    Polishing and finishing of wrenches
    Differences between polished and not-polished of hardware wrenche tools
    Methods for deburring hardware
    Manufacturers of hardware deburring equipment
    Hardware deburring machines
    Deburring and polishing of hardware products
    Hardware tool processing
    How to finish and polish hardware

How to deburr, descale, polish carbide mechanical seal parts?

Finishing and polishing technology of mechanical seal parts of cemented carbide products

Mechanical seals are precise and complex basic mechanical components. Commonly used metal materials include hard alloys (such as tungsten carbide), high silicon iron, nickel-chromium steel, chrome steel, bronze, carbon steel and cast iron, etc., which will produce burrs, flash, scratches, oxide scale and other defects during the manufacturing process. Do you know what kind of finishing and polishing process mechanical seal parts need to go through to obtain a satisfactory surface effect? ​​In this case, we will share the process technology and methods of deburring, derusting, descaling, polishing and brightening of a hard alloy mechanical seal product. This polishing process solution is also suitable for the surface polishing of sealing parts made by other hard metal materials.

    • jerrylu
    • 2024-06-03


deburring, derusting and polishing effect of carbide mechanical seal

1. Cemented carbide mechanical seal before polishing
burrs and oxide scale on the surface of mechanical seals of carbide parts before polishing


tungsten carbide


edge burrs, surface oxide scale




D 50MM

Pre-polishing process:

powder metallurgy

Post-polishing process:

product assembly

2. Finishing and polishing requirements
  • chamfer and remove flash, grooves without burrs.
  • smooth, bright surface, no burrs, no oxide scale.
3. Details of carbide mechanical seal polishing process:
Process steps (1) rough finishing of chamfering, deburring, descaling (2) fine polishing (3) anti-rust drying
Machinery and equipment centrifugal disc finishing machine centrifugal barrel finishing machine vibratory dryer
Speed highest highest highest
Tumbling media straight cut tri-angle ceramic media 3P finishing media corn cob drying media
Abrasive media to workpiece ratio 4:1 6:1 8:1
Finishing and polishing compound finishing liquid polishing liquid no
Water appropriate amount, liquid level is 20mm above the tumbling media appropriate amount, liquid level is 20mm above the tumbling media no
Polishing time 30 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes
Remark parts separated and picked up automatically, rinsed with water parts separated and picked up automatically, rinsed with water vibratory drying
4. Finishing and polishing effect of cemented carbide mechanical seal
deburring, descaling, chamfering, polishing, brightening effect of cemented carbide parts mechanical seal
mass finishing, polishing, burnishing, brightening effect of cemented carbide parts mechanical seal

5. Additional instructions
  • The hardness of tungsten carbide is generally between HRA87 and 94. The product volume is not large, so a centrifugal disc finisher is used, with heavy cutting force straight cut tri-angle ceramic media for rough finishing. The sharp tip of the tumbling media can reach into the groove to remove burrs and chamfers.
    Fine polishing uses a centrifugal barrel finisher with high centrifugal force, so the tumbling media uses high-hardness 3P fine polishing media, which can cut lightly, further reduce the roughness and improve the surface brightness.
  • In order to improve the anti-rust and anti-corrosion performance of the product after water treatment, it is immersed in a anti-rust liquid for anti-rust treatment after polishing. Finally, a a href=”” target=”_blank” rel=”noopener”>vibrating dryer is used to dry the surface moisture and dry it.

6. Final summary
  • In this case study, we demonstrate the process of chamfering, deburring, descaling, polishing and brightening the surface of a mechanical seal part made of tungsten carbide.
  • If you need professional technical support for the following mechanical seal product polishing issues, you can refer to the above cases:
    Mechanical seal polishing process technology
    Mechanical seal deburring process technology
    Mechanical parts polishing process technology
    Mechanical parts deburring process technology
    Metal parts polishing
    What abrasive is suitable for carbide polishing
    Introduction to carbide polishing technology
    Carbide deburring polishing process
    How to polish carbide
    What to use for polishing carbide
    Methods for descaling of carbide
    Cemented carbide surface polishing
    What finishing and polishing materials are used for carbide
    Mirror polishing of carbide

What is the ceramic media?

About Ceramic Media

  • 1. What is the ceramic media?
  • Ceramic media is used for tumbling finishing and polishing of product parts and workpieces, also called tumbler media, vibratory media, tumbling chip. It is a melting reaction between sand powder abrasives (such as brown corundum abrasive sand, white corundum abrasive sand, chrome corundum abrasive sand, silicon carbide abrasive sand, alumina powder, zirconia powder, etc.) and other ceramic bonding agents at high temperatures, artificially sintered mass finishing and polishing materials with various shapes. Because its hardness is close to that of stone, it is called tumbling stone. It can repair defects on the product surface, improve surface physical properties, and has a variety of finishing or polishing uses.
    ceramic media producing-cutting&shaping
    ceramic media producing-sintering
  • 2. What types of ceramic media are there?
  • There are many types of ceramic media, each suitable for different surface treatment purposes.
    Depending on the type of sintered abrasive sand powder, the commonly used ones are ceramic deburring media, silicon carbide deburring media, White corundum finishing media, chrome corundum finishing media, porcelain polishing media, High density porcelain media, zirconia polishing ball, Resin media.
    According to the use effect, there are rough finishing media, fine finishing media and polishing media. Both rough and fine finishing media have cutting force, but the cutting force is divided into light and heavy. The polishing media does not have cutting force and is only used to improve the surface gloss and brightness of the workpiece.
    According to the material, there are ceramic media and resin media. Among them, ceramic media are the collective name for deburring media such as brown corundum, silicon carbide, white corundum, chrome corundum, high-aluminum porcelain, high-density porcelain, and zirconia abrasive media.

    angle cut cylinder porcelain media
    cone resin media
  • 3. What is the use of ceramic media?
  • The operating principle of the ceramic media is to mix the workpiece or part with the tumbling media, add an appropriate amount of water and finishing compound, and load it into tumbling finishing machine In the working barrel, mechanical movements such as tumbling and rotation are carried out through vibratory (vibration), centrifugal disc, barrel, and tumbling barrel, so that the ceramic media and the workpiece impact and rub against each other, finishing the surface to achieve the effect of deburring and polishing.
    The role of ceramic media is reflected in two aspects:
    The ceramic media with cutting force can perform functions such as deburring, descaling, deflashing, chamfering, derusting, degreasing, cleaning and smoothing of parts and workpieces.
    The ceramic media without cutting force improves the density of the skin layer by impacting the product surface, and can polish and brighten the surface of parts and workpieces.

    heavy cutting ceramic media
    porcelain polishing media
  • 4. How long is the service life of the ceramic media?
  • The service life of a ceramic media can usually be from a few months to a few years, depending on the hardness, shape, and size of the finishing workpiece. Workpieces with sharp burrs and edges, sharp edges, flash edges, higher hardness and larger appearance will cause greater loss to the media. The service life is shorter.
    Of course the most basic factor depends on the quality of the ceramic media. High-quality tumbling media will enhance wear resistance while ensuring finishing efficiency. ShineTec’s ceramic media is a mature and stable formula formed on the basis of dozens of process tests. Corundum sand and ceramic bonding agent have the strongest matching performance, and the wear resistance of the product is longer than other products on the market in terms of service life. There is a 3 times improvement.
  • 5. What are the different functions of ceramic media made of different materials?
  • 5.1 Brown corundum deburring media is suitable for finishing and cutting product workpieces made of general metal or non-metal materials such as burrs, oxide scales, flash edges, turning tool marks, cutting edges, mold closing lines, etc.

    5.2 Silicon carbide deburring media are suitable for finishing and cutting hard, highly brittle and low-strength materials, such as cast iron, brass, bronze, zinc, tin and other products, especially magnetic materials such as rubidium iron boron, with very good results.

    5.3 White corundum and chrome corundum deburring media are suitable for finishing and cutting some precision parts and components because of their fine grit size. Also, because of their low surface roughness after treatment, they also form a very bright surface effect, so It is often used to finish and polish these products in one process at the same time.

    5.4 High alumina porcelain polishing media do not contain abrasive sand inside, so they have no deburring effect. The main component is alumina powder. The abrasive has high density. When it moves with the workpiece, it has a strong impact on the surface of the workpiece, forming a thick surface dense layer, which can improve the surface gloss and brightness of the part.

    5.5 The function of high-density porcelain polishing media is the same as that of high-alumina porcelain media. The difference is that the content of alumina powder in high-density porcelain media is higher, and its alumina content can reach more than 95%. Therefore, the density is larger, forming the surface brightness is higher.

    5.6 There is no abrasive sand inside the zirconia polishing ball. The main component is zirconia powder. The density of the zirconia media is higher than that of high-density porcelain media. The surface brightness of the workpiece after natural treatment is the highest.

    5.7 Resin media contain abrasive sand inside. Depending on the grit size of the sand, they can be divided into heavy cutting, medium cutting, and light cutting. They are suitable for finishing some soft metal workpieces, such as aluminum alloy products.

  • 6. What is the finishing efficiency of the ceramic media?
  • The finishing efficiency of the ceramic media depends on the grit size of the abrasive sand contained in it and the type of deburring and finishing machine. Specifically in terms of finishing time, the time required for a single finishing treatment can range from a few minutes to a few hours.
    The larger the grit size of the abrasive sand, the stronger the cutting force and the higher the finishing efficiency. But the larger the grit size, the greater the surface roughness and therefore the worse the surface finish.
    Depending on the operation mode and speed of the tumbling finishing machine, the finishing efficiency can be arranged in the following order:
    centrifugal disc finishing machine > centrifugal barrel finishing machine > vibratory finishing machine > tumbling barrel finishing machine
    In addition, for the same type of machine, the larger the machine, the larger the volume of the working barrel, and the higher the finishing efficiency.

    ShineTec fully automatic polishing machine for hardware
  • 7. Does the shape and size of the ceramic media affect its finishing performance?
  • The shape and size of the ceramic media are key factors affecting finishing performance. The purpose of making the ceramic media into shapes such as triangles, cubes, spheres, cylinders, and three-star shapes is to make certain sharp corners, cut surfaces, and curved surfaces of the ceramic media better match the irregular and complex shapes of product parts, so that some parts that are difficult to reach can be parts can also be polished. If the selection of the ceramic media is incorrect, some parts will never be polished, which will definitely affect the finishing performance.
    The size of the ceramic media is also an important factor to consider. If the size is too large, it will also cause the inner holes, dead corners, gaps and other parts of the workpiece to be unable to be polished. If the size is too small, on the one hand, it will cause the abrasive to wear too fast, and on the other hand, it will block certain holes in the product, and may even result in defective products.

  • 8. What are the benefits of finishing and polishing with ceramic media?
  • Are you still looking for manual polishing methods? Let us recommend to you this large-volume, high-efficiency automatic finishing and polishing process. Its comparative advantages over manual finishing methods are as follows:

    8.1 Compared with manual finishing and deburring, the efficiency can be improved dozens of times. Using some large-scale tumbling finishing machines, ceramic media mixed workpieces can feed hundreds or even thousands of kilograms at a time, and can be completed within dozens of minutes or hours. This processing efficiency is incomparable to manual polishing.

    8.2 The surface effect after finishing is uniform and controllable. The quality of hand polishing depends on the personal skill proficiency of the worker. Some products may have burrs polished cleanly, while others may still have some residue. The surface quality of each product is different. Sometimes it may also cause product damage, resulting in a relatively high scrap rate.

    8.3 The running costs of tumbling finishing are extremely low. The one-time purchase cost of the machine starts from a few thousand dollars, and it can generally be used for many years. The choice of ordinary ceramic media depends on the actual conditions of the product parts that need to be processed, and the price ranges from a few dollars to more than ten dollars per kilogram. Buying a few hundred kilograms at a time can usually take several months. The amount of polishing compound is very small and the cost is almost negligible.
    Ordinary finishing machines can feed dozens of kilograms of workpieces at a time, and the finishing time for a batch is generally 30-60 minutes. The direct cost of finishing and polishing when evenly distributed to each product is minimal.
    On the other hand, in terms of saving labor costs, the advantage of using ceramic media for batch deburring and polishing is even greater. As long as workers need to handle it when loading and unloading materials, the machine can be operated unattended, which greatly saves labor costs.

    8.4 By customizing ceramic media with special shapes and sizes, they can be used to process some deburring and polishing areas that cannot be completed by manual finishing. They have powerful functions and wide applicability.

    8.5 It is a safe and environmentally friendly deburring and polishing process. Compared with processes such as chemical polishing and electrolytic polishing, the sludge produced by ceramic media can be directly treated as solid waste after filter press, which is environmentally friendly.
  • 9. Can the ceramic media be used for dry finishing?
  • Not allowed.

    The water and finishing compound during the polishing process can provide lubrication. Buffer the impact force generated by the workpiece and ceramic media during high-speed movement. Without the lubrication and buffering effects of water and finishing liquid, the debris and impurities shed during the finishing process will scratch the surface of the workpiece and leave pits on the surface.

    At the same time, these metal or non-metal debris and impurities will accelerate the wear of the PU lining in the working barrel, greatly increase the temperature rise generated during work, and greatly reduce the service life of the PU.
    If the dust generated during the grinding process is not moistened with water, it will produce dust and pollute the surrounding air and environment.
  • 10. What kind of ceramic media is the best quality?
  • If you don’t know where to find the best ceramic media, here are some tips to help you decide:

    10.1 The shape of the ceramic media. The forming process in the production process of ceramic media is a link that reflects the manufacturing process level of the manufacturer. Good quality control capabilities determine that the ceramic media’s mixing, mud refining, shaping, cutting, and sintering processes all have qualified quality control capabilities. The ceramic media produced in this way have uniform shapes, consistent sizes, smooth surfaces, and sharp corners, these performance indicators ensure that cracks, mud occur rarely.

    10.2 The hardness of the ceramic media. This indicator reflects the sintering temperature control level of the kiln. If the kiln temperature is too low, the melting reaction of various micro-powders inside the ceramic media is insufficient, the tumbling media is too tender, the hardness is not up to standard, and the wear is very high during use. If the kiln temperature is too high, it will cause over-burning. Corundum sand on the surface of the ceramic media will precipitate, resulting in a porridge-like surface and the product will be scrapped.

    10.3 Durablity of ceramic media. Excellent product raw material quality, strict production process control, and just the right formula combination can produce high-quality ceramic media. The wear resistance of ShineTec’s tumbling media can reach about 3 times that of other manufacturers on the market. You can compare the use cost, which can reduce the direct cost of your product finishing and polishing process by 3 times.

    high quality ceramic media
  • 11. How to choose a suitable ceramic media?
  • 11.1 Choose the material of your ceramic media based on the effect you want to achieve. If you want to deburr, descale, deflash, derust, chamfer and other finishing effects on your product parts, then you should choose ceramic deburring media, silicon carbide deburring media, white Corundum finishing media and chrome corundum finishing media are abrasives with cutting force. If you just want to improve the surface brightness of your product, you need to choose polishing porcelain media, high-density porcelain media, and zirconia polishing bead, which are non-cutting and high-density tumbling ceramic media. If your product is made of soft metals such as aluminum alloy, copper, and zinc, you need to choose a resin media.

    11.2 Choose the appropriate ceramic media based on the size and surface condition of your product. If your product does not have holes, or cracks, then choose a larger deburring media so that it has a long service life and will not produce stuck holes or clogging even after its shape becomes smaller.

    11.3 Choose the appropriate ceramic media based on surface roughness. For rough products, choose a tumbling media with strong cutting force and sharp product corners. For precision parts, choose a abrasive media with fine abrasive grit and low cutting force.

What is the finishing media?

About Finishing Media

  • 1. What is the finishing media?
  • All materials that are naturally produced or artificially produced and have high hardness, cutting ability and certain strength and toughness, and are used for grinding, finishing or polishing, can be finishing media, abrasive media. Finishing media are a diverse category, and many people have questions of one kind or another, such as: What are finishing media? What are the commonly used finishing media? What are finishing media used for? What are the types of finishing media? Let’s talk about these issues in detail below.
    natural abrasives
  • 2. What are the types and uses of commonly used finishing media?
  • According to the source, abrasives can be divided into two categories: natural abrasive media and artificial finishing media.

    2.1 Natural abrasive media include diamond, natural corundum (also called emery), garnet, quartz sand, diatomaceous earth, pumice, flint, silica, feldspar, chalk, lime for polishing, etc.

    2.1.1 Diamond. Diamond is the hardest substance currently known. The main ingredient is carbon, which is expensive because of its limited origin. Mainly used for manufacturing resin, ceramic or metal bonded abrasive tools. Diamond has a sharp shape and is the best abrasive tool for grinding hard and brittle materials such as cemented carbide, optical glass, and ceramics. It has a better polishing effect on alloys of different phases with huge differences in soft and hard. In addition, diamond polishing abrasive media have the characteristics of long finishing life, high cutting ability, and strong wear resistance. However, because it is easily carbonized at 700℃~800℃, it is not suitable for finishing steel materials and ultra-high-speed grinding.

    2.1.2 The main components of emery are aluminum oxide (Al2O3), a small amount of iron oxide (Fe2O3) and other impurities. It can be used for finishing and polishing all metals.

    2.1.3 Garnet is the oldest type of polishing abrasive media. It was called Ziyawu in ancient China. It has been used to grind gemstones since the Bronze Age. It gets its name because the crystal particles are shaped like pomegranate seeds. It is mostly used for sandblasting, waterjet cutting, manufacturing coated abrasive tools, filter materials, wear-resistant floor aggregates, etc. It is used in hardware, steel, castings, ceramics, aluminum, wood, and leather industries.

    2.1.4 The main component of quartz sand is SiO2, which is the earliest grinding wheel material and can be used for grinding, polishing, tumbling and sandblasting. The main component of diatomite is also SiO2, which is an ingredient in the manufacture of polishing powder and whetstone. Suitable for finishing and polishing soft metals such as brass, aluminum, and zinc.

    2.1.5 Pumice comes from volcanoes and is the raw material for making polishing powder. Suitable for finishing and polishing soft metals and their alloys, wood, glass, plastic, leather, etc.

    2.1.6 Flint, is a relatively common siliceous rock. Because flint is hard and produces sharp fractures when broken, it was first favored by primitive people in the Stone Age and used to strike and make stone tools. The striking of flint and iron tools will produce sparks, so it was also used as a fire-making tool by ancient people. In ancient China, a small piece of flint and a steel “fire sickle” were often struck to make fire, so flint is also called flint. The modern grinding industry utilizes its hard and sharp edges as grinding materials.

    2.1.7 Silica is the general name for vein quartz, quartzite, and quartz sandstone. The main component is also SiO2. Silica has a wide range of uses. When used in the grinding industry, it can be used to make grinding stones, oil stones, and sandpaper. It can also be used to polish glass, Surface of metal products, sawing and grinding stones, polishing jewelry, etc.

    2.1.8 Feldspar is the general name for feldspar minerals. There are many types, such as albite, anorthite, barium feldspar, barium adolite, microcline feldspar, orthoclase, feldspar, etc. The main component is feldspar. Silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, K2O, sodium oxide, calcium oxide, etc. When used in the grinding industry, it is often used as a bond component in the production of bonded abrasive tools, such as grinding wheels.

    2.1.9 Chalk is calcium carbonate and has a wide range of uses. It is used in the grinding industry as a raw material for tooth powder, toothpaste and other cosmetics.

    2.2 Artificial abrasive media. It is an abrasive material that does not exist in nature and is entirely artificially produced. The main types are:

    2.2.1 Sintered abrasives. Mainly divided into corundum abrasive media, silicon carbide abrasive media and CBN (cubic boron nitride) abrasive media, the varieties are divided into:

    Brown corundum abrasive media. The main component is Al2O3, which has medium hardness, high toughness, sharp particles, relatively low price, and is suitable for processing metals with high tensile strength.

    White corundum abrasive media. Its hardness is slightly higher than brown corundum, but its toughness is poor. It is easy to cut into the workpiece during finishing. It has good self-sharpening, low heat generation, strong finishing ability and high efficiency. Chrome corundum abrasive media is its derivative.

    Single crystal corundum abrasive media. Its particles are composed of a single crystal and have good multi-edge cutting edges, high hardness and toughness, strong grinding ability, and low grinding heat. The disadvantage is that the production cost is high and the output is low, so the price is relatively high.

    Silicon carbide abrasive media. Divided into black silicon carbide abrasives, green silicon carbide abrasives, cubic silicon carbide abrasives, and cerium silicon carbide abrasives. The main component is SiC, which has high hardness, high brittleness, sharp abrasive grains, good thermal conductivity, and strong wear resistance. It is more suitable for processing hard and brittle metal and non-metallic products. At present, the finishing and cutting of most NdFeB magnetic materials is widely used.

    CBN (cubic boron nitride) abrasive media. It is a synthetic super-hard material, its hardness is second only to diamond, and it is an excellent grinding material. Compared with traditional grinding materials, CBN abrasives have excellent grinding performance, especially when grinding cemented carbide, and are more efficient. CBN abrasive media are known as one of the greatest technological advances in the history of the abrasives industry due to their high strength, high wear resistance, excellent hardness close to diamond, and excellent thermal stability. The wear resistance and hardness are more than four times that of traditional abrasives, and its unique chemical properties also make it particularly suitable for grinding ferrous metal materials.
    The thermal integrity of CBN abrasive media and their ability to maintain a sharp cutting edge when machining ferrous materials makes them the product of choice for advanced grinding systems. When grinding ferrous metals, they do not react with each other; when grinding steel alloys, they are not easily oxidized. This makes CBN abrasive media the first choice for high-performance grinding wheels for grinding different materials such as cast iron and hard steel.
    CBN abrasive media can withstand high temperatures of 1300℃~1400℃, are chemically inert to iron group elements, have good thermal conductivity, have high removal rates when grinding steel, have large grinding ratios, and have long tool life. They are ideal for grinding hardened steel, The best abrasive for metals with high hardness and toughness such as high-speed steel, high-strength steel, stainless steel and heat-resistant alloys. In addition, CBN abrasive tools are also suitable for ultra-high-speed grinding, and metal-based CBN abrasive tools will not break even if the linear speed exceeds 250m/s.

    2.2.2 Preformed finishing media.
    There are two types of such finishing media: One is sintered ceramic media; also known as ceramic deburring or polishing media. Corundum sand or silicon carbide powder, quartz powder, alumina and other materials are melted at a high temperature of more than 1,000 degrees and sintered into a finishing media with very high hardness. The other is abrasives media bonded with resin, called resin media, polyester media or plastic media. This type of abrasives media can be made into triangular, spherical, square, conical, cylindrical and other shapes. Each